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PARSLEY

Scientific Classification:

Kingdom Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Apiales
Family Apiaceae
Genus Petroselinum
Species P. crispum
Binomial name Petroselinum crispum
PARSLEY PETROSELINUM CRISPUM

Other Common Names:

The other common names for the herb parsley are Apium petroselinum, Petroselinum lativum, Petersylinge, Curly Parsley, Flat-leaved Parsley and devils oat meal.

History

Petroselinum, the specific name of the Parsley, from which our English name is derived, is of classic origin which was assigned by Dioscorides. The Ancients distinguished between two plants Selinon, one being the Celery (Apium graveolens) and called heleioselinon or Marsh selinon, and the other - our parsley - Oreoselinon, 'Mountain selinon'or petroselinum, and signifying 'Rock selinon.' This last name in the Middle Ages became corrupted into Petrocilium - this was anglicized into Petersylinge, Persele, Persely and finally Parsley. In the sixteenth century, Parsley was known as A. hortense, but herbalists retained the official name petroselinum. Linnaeus in 1764 named it A. petroselinum, but it is now assigned to the genus Carum.

The main reason for several cultivars of parsley are because of its principle being the common plain-leaved, the curled-leaved, the Hamburg or broadleaved and the celery-leaved. This herb is so familiar we often overlook it for more exotic plants, yet this attractive plate garnish is one of the most versatile medicinal plants around and is absolutely a must have in any well stocked herbal garden. Parsley herb is high in iron content and rich in vitamins A, B, C and trace minerals. Parsley is poisonous to most birds but is very good for animals like curing maladies such as foot-rot in sheep and goats.

Description

PARSLEY HERBS1 PARSLEY HERBS2

Parsley is a non-hairy biennial or short-lived perennial with a much branched stem. A thin, white, spindle-shaped root produces the erect, grooved, glabrous, angular stem that can reach a height of slightly over 2 feet. The plants are erect, about twelve inches tall, and quite vigorous. The leaves are large, flat, dark green and are shiny. The plant's leaves are pinnate decompound, which simply means that they are divided and somewhat featherlike in their appearance. The lower leaves are bi- or tri-ternately divided. They produce small umbels of white flowers which grows to about two feet (60 cm).Its fruits, commonly called seeds, are small, ovate, and grayish to grayish brown with alternating ribs and furrows. Now two different varieties are grown like Root parsley (var. tuberosum) which has a tender, edible root, whereas leaf parsley is solely cultivated for its leafs, which are chopped and used as a garnish in many European countries; its root is small and tough with a woody texture.

Origin

The plant is of South European probably East Mediterranean origin and became popular in more Northern latitudes in the Middle Ages, when it was commonly grown in monasteries and Imperial gardens. The plant is often cultivated as an annual for its foliage, especially in California, Germany, France, Belgium and Hungary. It has been completely naturalized in various parts of England and Scotland, on old walls and rocks.

Habitat

They prefer a habitat of rich, well-drained soil and full sun or partial shade. Parsley does best in highly fertile, well-drained soil. Tolerated pH range is 4.9 to 8.2. Keep plants watered during dry periods. Thrives in full sun, but will grow in light shade.

Cultivation

Propagate parsley from seed, even though germination is slow and erratic. To speed up germination, soak the seeds overnight in lukewarm water. The ideal temperature for Parsley is between 5 to 26 degrees centigrade. With a soil pH of 4.9 nd 8.3 (4.1-31).The plant prefers a rich, moist soil with good drainage. The principal sowing is generally done in April; it then germinates more quickly and provides useful material for cutting throughout the summer. The seed should be but slightly covered, not more than 1/2 inch deep and thinly distributed; if in drills, these should be 1 foot apart. Seedlings usually emerge in 15 to 21 days. Transplant to the garden about a week before your last frost date. (A light frost will not harm the plants.) A well-grown plant will cover nearly a square foot of ground. Keep the soil moist during germination and early growth. The rows should be kept clean of weeds, and frequent dressings may be applied with advantage. Plants produce only a rosette of leaves in the first year. If the growth becomes coarse in the summer, cut off all the leaves and water well. This will induce a new growth of fine leaves, and may always be done when the plants have grown to a good size, as it encourages a stocky growth. Renew the beds every two years, as the plant dies down at the end of the second season. Parsley is a good pot plant for decks, patios, and window boxes in cool locations away from hot sun. A 10- to 12-inch (25 to 30 cm) pot filled with standard potting soil and some aged manure can accommodate one large plant or three dwarf ones. Keep the soil moist and provide a balanced fertilizer once a month.

Harvest the outer leaves for fresh use, drying, or freezing throughout the growing season. If not picked, these leaves become coarse and their flavor diminishes. Gather the leaves early in the morning, when it is still cool. To dry, spread leaves on a screen and leave in a shady, well-ventilated spot. Crumble dried leaves and store in an airtight container. Alternatively, and preferably, freeze leaves on a cookie sheet, then store in freezer containers. Parsley retains its color and flavor better with freezing than drying.

Flowering Season

The greenish-yellow or white flowers appear in compound umbels from June to August.

Pests and Diseases

Apart from slugs parsley is generally pest resistant. There is an unfortunate disease that can affect parsley if you see first brown then white spots destroy all your parsley plant. Htis is a fungus and there is no cure.

Parts Used

PARSLEY PARTS1 PARSLEY PARTS2

The most commonly used parts of the herb parsley are roots and seeds. However very rarely the leaves of the plant are also used.

Medicinal Applications

PARSLEY MEDICINE
  • The distilled water is used in children when troubled with wind in the stomach or belly, and it is also of service to upgrown persons.

  • When applied to women's breasts that are hard through the curdling of their milk, it abates the hardness and takes away the black and blue marks coming of bruises or falls.

  • The seeds contain oil which is used to promote the menstrual flow and to ease menstrual pain.

  • It is used in kidney complications and for dysentery problem.

  • A tea made from the seeds and the leaves as well as the fresh juice is used for dropsy, jaundice, asthma, coughs and suppressed or difficult menstruation.

  • The juice is used to treat conjunctivitis and inflammation of the eyelids.

  • The seeds are used in the treatment of gout, rheumatism, and arthritis.

  • Parsley root is taken as a treatment for flatulence, cystitis, and rheumatic conditions.

  • It is used as a breath freshener, digestive aid, and in tea to treat high blood pressure and rheumatism.

  • It has also been used as a quinine substitute to treat malaria.

Commercial and Culinary Applications

  • The root is stronger, and may be boiled and eaten like Parsnips.

  • The leaves are used as a flavouring to sauces, soups, stuffings, rissoles, minces, etc., and also sprinkled over vegetables or salads.

  • The leaves are also dried and powdered as a culinary flavouring in winter, when only a limited supply of fresh Parsley is obtainable.

  • In addition to the leaves, the stems are also dried and powdered, both as a culinary colouring and for dye purposes.

  • The oil from parsley leaves and seeds is used commercially to flavor cured and canned meats, condiments, sauces, pickles, baked goods, and soups.

Scriptures and Religious Quotes

There is an old superstition against transplanting parsley plants. The herb is said to have been dedicated to Persephone and to funeral rites by the Greeks. It was afterwards consecrated to St. Peter in his character of successor to Charon. The ancient Greeks associated it with Achromous, the Herald of Death and as such covered their tombs with it. Perhaps because of this association they did not eat, although they did feed their horses with it.

The Greeks held Parsley in high esteem, crowning the victors with chaplets of Parsley at the Isthmian games, and making with it wreaths for adorning the tombs of their dead. The herb was never brought to table of old, being held sacred to oblivion and to the dead. It was reputed to have sprung from the blood of a Greek hero, Archemorus, the forerunner of death, and Homer relates that chariot horses were fed by warriors with the leaves. Greek gardens were often bordered with Parsley and Rue.

Folklore and Myths

The herb was never brought to the table of old, being held sacred to oblivion and to the dead. It was reputed to have sprung from the blood of the Greek hero Archemorus, the forerunner of death. There is an old superstition against transplanting parsley plants. The herb is said to be dedicated to Persephone and to funeral rites by the Greeks. When eaten, parsley provokes lust and promotes fertility, but if you are in love don't cut parsley-you'll cut your love as well. It can also be used as a protection herb, and placed on plates of food to avoid contamination. Parsley is also used in purification baths and to stop misfortune. It has been thought that only pregnant women or witches could grow Parsley and planting on Good Friday was the only way to ensure a good harvest.

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