The Ramayana is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the
Mahabaratha. Composed by the great sage Valmiki in Sanskrit, this is the most popular and
timeless Indian epic read and loved by all and is referred to as the Adi Kavya or original epic.
The term 'Ramayana', literally means "the march (ayana) of Rama" in search of human values.
As a literary work, it combines "the inner bliss of Vedic literature with the outer richness of
delightfully profound story telling." In the words of Swami Vivekananda about the Valmiki
Ramayana: "No language can be purer, none chaster, none more beautiful, and at the same time
simpler, than the language in which the great poet has depicted the life of Rama."
TIME OF COMPOSITION
Like many other classical poems written in ancient times, the exact date and time of the genesis of Ramayana is yet to be determined accurately. There was a long period of oral tradition before
the Ramayana was actually written, and the original content of the story is based on various
pre-existing folk tales about Rama. The reference to the Greeks, Parthians, and Sakas shows that the time of composition of Ramayana cannot be earlier than the second century B.C. But
the consensus is that Ramayana was written between the 4th and the 2nd centuries B.C. with
augmentations up to about 300 C.E. Linguistically and philosophically, a period just after the
Vedic age, would most suit the content of the epic.
STORY OF RAMAYANA
Rama was the virtuous eldest son of Dasharatha, king of Ayodhya. Dasharatha was born in
the line of Ikshvaku (“the first king of the Ikshvaku dynasty and founder of the Solar Dynasty
of Kshatriyas in Vedic civilization in ancient India”). Born to Kaushalya, the chief queen of
Dasharatha, he automatically became the crown prince. He deeply loved his half brothers, the
twins Laxmana and Shatrughana, born to queen Sumitra, and Bharatha, born to queen, Kaikeyi.
The family guru, Vashistha taught them all the art of arms. When Rama was sixteen, on the
request of the great Vishwamitra, Dasharatha sent Rama and Lakshmana to the forest to defend
Vishwamitra’s rituals from vicious demons which they devotedly performed.
At the swayamvara of Sita the princes of Mithila, Rama won the hands of her by breaking the
bow of Lord Shiva with the blessings of Vishwamitra. The aging King Dasaradha decided
to crown Rama as king. Queen Kaikeyi grew envious and by virtue of the old promises that
Dasharatha had made, made Rama go to the forest in exile for fourteen years. Both Sita and
Laxmana accompanied Rama to the forest.
In the meantime the grieved Dasharatha died. Rama lived in a small hut with Sita and
Lakshmana in Panchavati in the Dandakavana. Ravana, the mighty king of Lanka, under the ill-
gotton advices of his sister Surpanaga, kidnapped Sita to Lanka. Rama and Laxmana in their
attempt to rescue her, met with so many hardships and with the help of their friends like monkey-
king Sugriva, Hanuman and along with Sugriva’s army invaded Lanka. After Ravana lost all
his men including his brothers and son he himself came to battlefield. Insppite of the deadly
weapons he used against Rama and Laxmana but none of them could hurt them because they
had truth and justice on their side. At last Ravana was killed and Rama and Sita were reunited.
After the expiry of 14 years of exile Rama along with Sita and Laxman returned to Ayodhya.
The whole of Ayodhya became jubilant. On an auspicious day Rama was crowned the king of
The story starts with the childhood of Rama and describes his entire life history. Through the
character of Rama, an elaborate emphasis and significance is bestowed on moral, ethical and
ABOUT THE COMPILATION
This great epic is composed of rhyming couplets called 'slokas', employing a complex meter
called 'anustup'. These verses are grouped into individual chapters called 'sargas', wherein a
specific event or intent is told. The 'sargas' are again grouped into books called 'kandas'. The
seven 'kandas' of Ramayana are:
Bal Kanda (the boyhood section)
Ayodhya Kanda (Rama's life in Ayodhya, until his banishment)
Aranya Kanda (Rama's life in the forest and Sita's abduction by Ravana)
Kishkindha Kanda (Rama's stay at Kishkindha, the capital of his monkey ally, Sugriva)
Sundara Kanda (Rama's passage to Sri Lanka)
Yuddha Kanda or Lanka Kanda: (Rama's battle with Ravana, the recovery of Sita, and return to
Uttara Kanda (the section narrating Rama's life in Ayodhya as king, the birth of his two sons,
Sita's test of innocence and return to her mother, and Rama's demise or 'jala samadhi' (water-
tomb)).The Uttara Kanda is regarded to be a later addition to the original story by Valmiki.
VERSIONS AND TRANSLATIONS
The heroic deeds of Rama and his exciting adventures have inspired generations of people,
and for centuries, the epic existed only orally in Sanskrit. Other famous versions of Ramayana
include Shri Ramcharitmanas in Avadhi or old Hindi by Goswami Tulsidas, Kambaraamayanam
by Kambar in Tamil, the Patala Ramayanam in Malayalam, and the Bengali Ramayana by
Krittivas Ojha. This monumental work had a deep influence on almost all Indian poets and
writers of all ages and languages. Valmiki's Ramayana was first introduced to the West in 1843
in Italian by Gaspare Gorresio with support of Charles Albert, the King of Sardinia.
The Ramayana has been a perennial source of spiritual, cultural and artistic inspiration, not
only to the people of India but also to the people all over the world. It has gone a long way in
moulding the Hindu character and has inspired millions of people with the deepest of love and
devotion. Rama's unquestioning obedience to his father's wishes, his moral uprightness in war,
his deference to the wishes of his people, his generosity in the face of personal loss and his
marital fidelity all have depicted the fundamental qualities that a human should possess. In the
polygamous royal society of ancient time the Ekam patni vrata (following eternal faithfulness
to a single wife) was an unthinkable heroism. Rama was the personification of Ekam patni vrata
and lived as a symbol of formidable self-control. Even now ideal governess is referred as Rama