Tthe Arabs who took
to Islam acted as middlemen between the East and the West. They carried new
inventions like Gunpowder, Compass, Paper, Tea and Printing Technology to Europe
from China via India.
Mahmud of Ghazni and Mohammed Ghori and their fanatical
followers poured down across the Khyber and Bolan passes of the Himalayan ranges
into the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains. The Hindu civilization meanwhile passed
its prime by the 10th century of the Christian era. Shankaracharya was the last
great philosopher of Hindu India. Artistic inspiration died up after 7th to
8th centuries so nothing like the Ajanta was created afterwards. The Last great
Poet in Sanskrit was Kalidasa. Universities like Taxila and Nalanda stopped
attracting brilliant minds from all over the world.
The feudal decline
and the consequent degeneration of society paved way for foreign intervention.
Mohmud Ghazni carried out 17 raids in northern India, but this shock treatment
did not produce any unified plan of resistance among the Indian rulers. With
the best horses the Afghans had no natural barriers once they passed the Khyber-Bolan
passes. Alberuni, a great Arab Scholar was fascinated by the "Hindu" Indian
thought .He recorded the Hindu_Arabic cultural interaction in many of his works.
The Arab scholars adopted and popularized the Hindu Numerals, which are now
called ARABIC NUMERALS the world over, 1including the concept of ZERO.
Conquest of India from the northwestern
route by the Muslim dynasties is summarized and given below according to chronology.
conquest of Sind.
of Mahmud of Ghazni.
Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithiviraj
dynasty established by qutb-ud-din -Aibak.
bin Tughlak's reign.
of Sayyids at Delhi.
of Bahlul Lodi
||First Battle of
Panipat. Babur establishes the Mughal Empire.
QUTB MINAR -
The Delhi Sultanate
came around 1210, under the rule of Qubtuddin Aibek and continued till
the foundation to the Mughal Empire was laid by Babar in 1526.He was
followed by Iltumish who completed the QUTB MINAR which stands on the
outskirts of Delhi. A number of Sultans followed, but each rule was
punctuated by bloody wars.
Then followed the
Tughlugs who transferred the capital from Delhi to Devagiri in the South
and they also introduced leather currency, which was a failure. By the
20th century the Muslims after 800 years of domination could convert
only 25% of the population of India to Islam.
Muslims could not rule without Hindu assistance, so many Hindus were inducted
into the bureaucracy. This resulted in the development of a new common
language, Urdu, which is now spoken in most parts of Northern India.
INDIA IN HISTORY
absence of large-scale invasion, South India maintained equilibrium till the
advent of British rule. The agrarian integration took place in South India
in the beginning of the second millennium. The agricultural surplus in the
Kaveri valley region projected Tanjore ,the Chola Capital under kings like
Raja Raja, Rajendra and Kulothunga. In the 9th century of the Christian era
great Tamil works like CHILAPADIKARAM, MANIMEGALAI AND JIVAKA CHINTAMANI were
made. Since the west coast of India had a world monopoly of pepper, teak and
spices, it attracted a lot of western adventurers.
1000 and 1300 AD, the Hoysala Empire, which had centers in Belur, Halebid,
and Somnathpur was at its peak. Meanwhile in northern Karnataka the Hindu
kingdom of Vijayanagar was founded in 1336 by the famous brothers Harihara
and Bukka. Its capital was Hampi and perhaps it was the strongest Hindu kingdom.
This rule started
in India with the arrival of Babar, a refuge prince from Samarkhand.
Akbar, the Great, followed him. Birbal, the court wit and Tansen, the
musician became legendary figures during Akbar's period. His religious
views can be considered to be the forerunner of the ideas of Mahatma
of our times.
Fatepur Sikri the
monumental work of Akbar speaks of his vigor and dynamism. Akbar was
probably the greatest of the Mughal Emperors, for he, not only had great
military power but he was also a man of culture and wisdom.
(1605-27) and Shahjahan (1527-59) who succeeded Akbar were both pleasure
seekers, caring more for power and wealth than reforms and justice. The
Mughal Empire is a unique phenomenon in the history of India and it was
autocratic to the core. The Mughals had a great passion for monumental
architectures. It didn't take long for revolts to take place on all sides
and with Aurangazeb's death in 1707; the Mughal Empire's fortune began
to decline sharply.