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History :
The decline of the Slave dynasty, made Delhi Sultanate even more fragile and instable due to the numerous revolts and internal aggression. And this started the Khilji dynasty with the crowning of Jalaluddin Khilji by the nobles in the year 1290 A.D. Jalaluddin Khilji was the first Indian ruler of the Khilji dynasty, who ruled from 1290 - 1294 and invaded India by building his capital in Delhi, though he never really ruled from there. His capital was constructed at Kilokhri where he ruled for around 6 years.

Khilji Dynasty
During this period Mongols attacked the country, Jalal-ud-din Khilji's brave front and smart negotiations marked the Mongols defeat. They came back however, five years later and attacked once again when his nephew ascended on the throne. But within short period, he was killed by his nephew Alauddin Khilji under a conspiracy hatched by the latter. The Khilji dynasty is also known by the name of Khalji dynasty. The history of Khilji dynasty is well known for its brutal wars and internal conflicts among the rulers.

Ala-ud-din Khilji was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty, whose real name was Juna Khan and he ruled India from 1296-1316. He killed Jalal-ud-din Khilji and then announced himself as the ruler of Delhi. Alauddin Khilji conquered the territory of Gujarat. Around 1301 A.D, he captured Ranthambhor and murdered the Rajput Hamir Deva. Then defeated Rana Rattan Singh and captured Chittoor. By 1305, he captured territories like Malwa, Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi but couldn't capture Bengal. He had conquered almost entire north India by the year 1311 and established his kingdom successfully. Expanding his territory into the peninsular India within a short span of time he died on January 1316 due to an acute health condition.

Ala-ud-din Khilji was one among the greatest administrator of the Sultanate kings. Unlike his predecessors he implemented fundamental changes in the way the Sultanate was ruled. As earlier Sultans had based their strength largely on strong army and control of few important towns. The respective headmen of rural areas used to govern that particular area, and these headmen were the middlemen between the Sultan and the area. The headmen had the knowledge that the central authority was far removed from their daily affairs which made a difference, and because of which they would often refuse to co-operate with the Sultan's officers. Ala-ud-din eased the situation due to the strong influence he had, but there was little he could do.

Khilji Dynasty
Gujarat, Malwa, Ujjain
1201 - 1390 AD
Persian and Arabic
Sunni Islam
Jalal ud-din Firuz Khilji, Ala-ud-din Khilji, Qutb-ud-Din Mubarak Shah

Ala-ud-din began a series of reforms which could curb such activity as he felt. He took away land grants from many of his courtiers, officers and re-organized revenue administration. There was a fixed rate of land revenue, 50 percent of the standing crop which was in reality a much better deal for the poor peasants, who had currently being paying numerous taxes to various officials.

The rulers also organized a large standing army for the defence and also to provide guaranteed food supply to the capital. Alcohol was banned and the courtiers were not permitted to celebrate private meetings or parties. Ala-ud-din appointed spies all over the kingdom to keep him informed about the developments that were taking place. He implemented startling economic reforms, although their effects were probably restricted to Delhi and the 100 mile radius around it.

Medieval city of Ala-ud-din khilji dynasty
Qutb-ud-Din Mubarak Shah was the third and last ruler of the Khilji dynasty in India who ruled from 1290 to 1320. He was the weakest ruler of all and during his reign, all taxes and penalties were abolished. He released all prisoners of war who were captured after waging gruesome battles. He was ultimately murdered by Khusru Khan and this ended the Khilji dynasty in India. Khiljis were basically Central Asians and had lived in Afganistan for long however, in terms of customs and manners they were different from the Turks.

Alauddin's most trusted noble was Malik Kafur. After Alauddin`s death, he managed to control the situation and made Shahab-ud-din Umar as the king. However Malik Kafur`s own agent killed him. After Malik Kafur, Qutb-ud-din Mubarik Shah another son of Alauddin killed Umar became the Sultan in 1316. During his rule the power was actually in the hands of Khusraw Khan, a lowborn Hindu slave who used to spend time in drinking and womanizing. Khusraw killed Mubarik and declared himself as the Sultan. This led to an end of the Khilji Dynasty.

Contribution to the Indian Society
Alauddin tomb
Islamic architecture in India is an interesting mingling during the period of Khiliji Dynasty. It marked developments in building techniques and the third ruler Alauddin was one of the ambitious builders of that time. The Alai Darwaza was an extension of the Qwwat-ul-Islam mosque.

This was one of the four grand gateways. Some other structures built by Khiljis were the city wall of Siri, the tomb of Alauddin Khilji and the `Madrasa`. The economic reforms by Alaudiin Khilji was undoubtedly a remarkable contribution to the Indian economy. It can be said that the coming of Khaljis to power was more than just being a dynastic change.