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History :
In fifteenth century the political condition of India deteriorated and there was no powerful kingdom in northern India to rule. The last ruling Lodi dynasty had weakened the position. Such a situation invited the invasion from northern west boarders of India with Babur's Invasion.

Zahiruddun Mohammed Babur founded the Mughal Emphire in India; he is the history's most powerful conquerors. In his young days he was among the improvised princes, all descended by Timur. He inherited the small state of Farghana in AD 1494. In order to extend in India and improve his situation in central Asia he invaded India five times. In the fifth expedition he defeated Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat in AD 1526. Babur's conquest was incomplete till he defeated Rana Sanga, the kind of Mewar and the greatest Rajput kind of the period.

Rana Sanga was defeated on 16 March, 1527 but unfortunately Babur was not destined to enjoy the fruits of his victory as he died in Agra in AD 1530. Babur was an enlightened ruler who loved poetry, gardening and books. He wrote cultural treatises on Hindus, he conquered and took notes on flora and fauna. Babur's eldest son Humayun succeeded him as the king. The strongest challenge for Humayun was the Afghan Leader Sher Shah Suri, who defeated Humayun in the battles of Chausa and Kanuaj in AD 1540. Humayun was forced to spend nearly fifteen year in exile in Persia. The Shah of Iran gave him shelter in Persia.

Ruled area
Delhi, Punjab, Kashmir, Kaveri, Bengal.
1526 to 1858 or 16th to 18th century
Urdu, Persian, Arabic and Turkic.
Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb,
Sunni Islam, Din-i-llahi

During this period Sher Shah family ruled the over Northern India. Though Sher Shah ruled only for short period he is remembered in Indian History as one of the best rulers in Medieval India. In AD 1554 Humayun was able to invade India with the help of Bairam Khan. He conquered most of the Punjab and defeated the Afghans in a battle near Sirhind and captured Delhi. When Humayun died he left behind his thirteen year old son Jalal-ud din Akbar as his heir under the care of Bairam Khan.

Akbar had demonstrated his own capacity as an Administrator. He was free from influences of the ministers of his court. He had shown his capability for judgement and leadership. His administrative policies were backbone of Mughal Empire for more than 200 years. He separated the military and political functions from the other functions of the Imperial Service. Akbar created a ranked Imperial service based on the person's ability rather than birth. In the second battle of Panipat fought between Hemu Vikramaditya and Bairam Khan in AD 1556, Hemu was defeated. It gave Delhi and Agra back to Akbar. In 1562 he married a Rajput princess, daughter of the Raja of Amber (now Jaipur). She becomes one of his senior wives and the mother of his heir, Jahangir.

Red fort
Din-I-IIai was the new syncretic religion propounded by Akbar intended to merge the best elements of the Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Jainism and Zoroastrianism. Akbar's reigns lasted nearly for fifty years and he established dominion on central and north India. He was the first great Mughal emperor who patronized art. After Akbar, Jahangir ascended the throne as Akbar's eldest son. The Mughal Era under Jahangir and Shah Jahan was remembered as the era for political stability, strong economic activity, monument building and beautiful paintings. Due to Akbar's organized administration, Jahangir had the unlimited source of revenue. Jahangir built the famous garden after his name and spent much time relaxing. Jahangir married a Persian princess Nur Jahan who evolved as the most powerful in the court. Jahangir passed the expanding empire to his son Shah Jahan in 1627. Shah Jahan left behind the colossal monuments of the Mughal Empire, Including Taj Mahal (his favorite wife's tomb), the pearl Mosque, the Royal Mosque, and the Red Fort. Jahan's campaigns in the south and his flare extravagant architecture necessitated increased taxes.

Shah Jahan is called the "architect king". The Red Fort and the Jama Masjid in Delhi are the achievements of both civil engineering and art. Yet above all else, Shah Jahan is remembered today for the Taj Mahal, the massive white marble mausoleum constructed for his wife Mumtaz Mahal along the banks of the Yamuna River in Agra.The third son of Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb imprisoned him and ascended to the throne in 1658. Aurangazeb took the title 'Almagir ' . During his reign the Mughal Empire reached to its highest peak. He was a superb general as well a rigourous administrator. The peaceful religion of Sikhism turned militant against Aurangazeb who murdered the ninth Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. The Jat, Sikh and Rajput in the North and the Marathas in the Deccan revolted against Aurangazeb.

Languages Spoken
Language spoken by the Mughals was Urdu which slowly evolved into a mixture of to a form of Hindustani known as Urdu. Apart from Urduthe other languages spoken were Persian, Arabic and Turkic.

Mughal Coinage
Mughal coin
Mughal Empirebrought about a lot of uniformity in the coinage system of India. The system lasted even after the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Coins were largely the creation of Sher Shah Suri. Sher Shah was the person who issued a coin of silver which was termed the Rupiya.

This coin weighed 178 grains. It remained largely unchanged till the early 20th Century. Gold coins were issued together with the silver Rupiya and they were called the 'Mohur' which weighed 169 grains. The copper coins were called the 'Dam'.

Usage of Coins by Mughal reflected originality and innovative in technique. The designs of coins came to development during the reign of the Grand Mughal emperor, Akbar.