Dynasty










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TUGHLAQ DYNASTY

History :
Tughlaq Dynasty was basically of Turkish origin and the family religion was Muslim. In the year 1321, Ghazi Tughlaq succeeded the throne and was given the title as Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq. The Tughlaqs were able to withhold their rule for quite some time as they had strong allies like the Turks, Afghans and the Muslim warriors of south Asia. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq was the one who founded the Tughlaq dynasty in India.

The founders' real name was Ghazi Malik and he ruled from 1320 - 1325. He founded the city of Tughlaqabad outside Delhi. He fought battle against Khusrao Khan, who killed the last Khilji ruler. He made successful defense against the Mongols which made him an able ruler and the founder of a dynasty in India. He conquered areas including eastern portion of Bengal, a huge territory.


Founder of Tuglaq dynasty
One of the most controversial rulers in India was Mohammed bin Tughlaq. He was the successor of Ghazi Tughlaq. The Dynasty spread across the country. He was a brilliant personality who had full command over mathematics and medicine. He was considered crazy by those who were there in his court. He was known for his cruel and brutal punishments to people who were found guilty of even small mistakes. He shifted the capital from Delhi to a place in the outskirts known as Daulatabad which harmed his reputation amongst policy makers.

Administration
Mohammed bin Tughlaq had the idea of introducing token currency for the first time in India. He planned an expedition for the conquest of Khurasan and Iraq. But the scheme was abandoned as conditions in Iraq improved. The plan for the conquest of Karajal (Kumaon hills) also met with unsuccessful ending. During his last days, the whole of India became independent and three major independent states - The Empire of Vijaynagar, The Bahmani kingdom and Sultanate of Madura were founded. Dewan-i-Kohi a new department for agriculture was setup. He knew Arabic and Persian languages. He was an expert in philosophy, astronomy, logic, mathematics and was also a good calligrapher. He built the fortress of Adilabad and the city of Jahanpanah. The famous traveller, Ibn Batuta came to Delhi during 1334. He acted as the Quazi of the capital for 8 years. He has recorded the contemporary Indian scene in his 'Safarnamah'. (Called Rehla).

Tughlaq tomb
Feroz Shah Tughlaq was the successor and he ascended the throne after Mohammed Bin Tughlaq. Feroz Shah was a caring ruler. Feroz Shah made sure that people in his kingdom were happy and heard their problems patiently. However, he did not havea strong military and could not sustain any sort of external attacks or aggression. Feroz Shah breathed his last in the year 1388 and after that the Tughlaq dynasty faded away in no time. The Tughlaqs also wished to rule the whole of India. Ghyasuddin’s (1320 AD – 1325 AD) campaign to Warrangal, Odissi and Bengal were directed towards this end. He built the city Tughlaqabad near Delhi. By 1324 AD, the territories of the Delhi sultanate reached upto Madurai. However, his economic policy was not consistent with his political ambitions. As the Iqta holders were permitted their earlier perquisites, power gradually slipped back into the hands of nobles.

Tuglaq dynasty
Place
Delhi
Period
1320 AD- 1412 AD
Language
Urdu
Religion
Sunni Islam
Rulers
Ghiyas ud din Tughluq Shah I, Muhammad Shah II , Mahmud Ibn Muhammad , Firuz Shah Tughluq, Ghiyas ud din Tughluq II , Abu Baker, Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah III , Sikander Shah I

Feroz Tughlak had not contributed much to expansion of the the territories in the empire, which he inherited. In 1360 he invaded Jajnagar to destroy the Jagannath Puri temple. In 1326 AD he met with success in his expedition to Sindh, before this he had led an invasion to Nagarkot with an idea to destroy the Jwalamukhi temples. The Sultan was not tolerant towards people with different religions. Feroz Tughluq also introduced reforms in the field of irrigation and also constructed buildings with architectural skill. He reformed the currency system. After him the dynasty began to disintegrate. The last Tughluq ruler Mahmud Nasir-uddin ruled from 1395-1413 AD. The invasion of Mongol ruler Timur in1398 A.D. sealed the fate of the Tughluq dynasty.