The Telugu speaking areas were separated from what was the composite Madras Sate, on 1st October 1953, and Andhra Pradesh came into being. Highly significant antiques are found in Andhra Pradesh bearing resemblance to various stages of development from the lower Paleolithic times.
The land where Kama got back his" rupa" or form came to be called Kamarupa.Old tribes inhabiting the area were swept away or subdued when Ahoms, a tribe that came from the upper Irravady Valley, defeated their chieftains. The domination by the Ahoms earned for the land its present name, Assam.
Internal feuds had weakened them by the early 19th century, when the Burmese overran them.Then the British began to consolidate here and revolts started against them. With the suppression of the 1857 country-wise uprising called the Sepoy Mutiny, the British were able to silence the Assamese rebels.
The antiquity of Magadha is established by the fact that it is referred in the Vedas. The kings of Magadha continued to be powerful for a along time and it was the awe inspired by them that made even the Great Alexander, to retreat.
By the closing years of the 4th century B.C., Magadha had become more powerful under the Mauryan Kings, founded by Chandragupta Maurya, whose grandson was Asoka, the Great. Although Asoka's empire was vast, his impact was felt almost over the whole of Bihar. Now, Bihar is studded with monuments that bear the memory of Mahavir Jina who resurrected Jainism, and of the Buddha. Bodhgaya, where the Buddha attained enlightment is also in Bihar. Once famous all over the world, Nalanda, the University for Buddhist studies was in Bihar too.
Surat is the city where the British first founded their settlement to claim the whole of India. The term Gujarat comes from the Gujaras, a tribe that settled down here in the beginning of the 5th century.
Goa has come under the rule of many historical dynasties. The Kadambas ruled the land with Chandrapura as the capital. The Bahamanis, the Mahomedan rulers of Deccan conquered Goa in 1352. Ela , on the river Mandovi became the capital. It fell in the hands of Yusuf Adil Shah, the Sultan of Bijapur. In 1510 Alfonso de Albuquerque, the second Governor of the Portuguese possessions in India, conquered it, killing the Bijapur soldiers.
In 1809, during the Napoleonic wars the British occupied Goa, but restored it to Portugal after the treaty of Vienna. In 1961, after more than 4 centuries of foreign domination, it was liberated by India.
The most important city of the region was Thaneswar. Towards the end of the 6th century it became the capital of the Pushyabuti dynasty. In the 8th century, the Huns frequently raided the areas. In 1014 Mahmud of Ghazni, invaded the region and plundered Thaneswar and many other small cities. Then came Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty, who won the battle of Panipat in Haryana in 1526. Some princely rulers till 1857, when the Sepoy Mutiny took place, ruled the region. Haryana was reconstituted as a separate state in 1966.
Kasyapa, a great sage of ancient times, who knew the secret of the demon, was determined to rid the earth of him. With the help of the Gods, he had the lake struck by a mighty plough. The water was drained out and the demon lost his powers and vanished. Then emerged a wonderful land, which was called Kashyapmir, or Kashyap-mar from which the name Kashmir came into being.
Hindu Kings ruled Kashmir from the very beginning and the valley came under the rule of Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. After Asoka, a number or rulers followed and then Emperor Asoka conquered it in 1586 and the region became a part of the Mughal Empire. In 1757, Ahmad Shah Abdali of Afghanisthan conquered it. With popular support Maharaja Ranjit Singh took it over in 1819. Soon after the death of Ranjit Singh the British East India Company won a war with the Sikhs but sold it to the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, for a price of 75 lakh rupees. Then, Jammu and Kashmir became one state.
Then rose the famous Vijayanagar Empire, founded by Harihara and Bukka. The Empire was at its height during the reign of Krishnadevaraya.
Ruins of Hampi
Karnataka, also known as Kuntala Desa in ancient times, was the home of an enterprising people who carried on trade with the Egyptians and the Sumerians. There was also close communications between the cities of Karnataka and those of the Indus Valley civilization.
Karnataka became a part of the Mauryan Empire by the 4th century. A native dynasty, known as the Satavahanas or the Satakarnis took over from the Mauryans in the 1st century B.C. Simultaneously and subsequently, the Gangas and the Chalukyas ruled parts of Karnataka. The Indian music has two great traditions, the North- Indian and the Karnatic School. Hampi is supposed to be the birthplace of the Karnatic School.
The Empire weakened and ended in the 16th century. New dynasties, the Nayaks, the Pallegars and the Wadiyars came up. Haidar Ali subdued the various chieftains and he became the Sultan in the second half of the 18th century. His conflict with the rising British power ended in the death, while fighting, of his famous son, Tipu Sultan, in 1799. The state was restored to the Wadiyar Dynasty, though it remained under the British control.
COCHIN - JEWISH SYNAGOGUE
In 1947, the state of Travancore and Cochin together with the Malabar area directly ruled by the British , formed a new state. Cranganore, Quilon, Cochin, Calicut, Kadalundi, Cannanore and Dharmadam were busy trading centers even three thousand years ago, carrying on trade with Assyrian and Babylonian Empires.
The first batch of Jews had arrived in Kerala, according to tradition, in King Solomon's ship. They had their flourishing settlement near Cochin. Kerala was also the first to welcome the Christians in India, headed by St. Thomas, the Apostle, who arrived in India within years of the death of Jesus Christ
Later the legendary king, Vikramaditya of the Gupta dynasty ruled from Ujjain. King Yasodharaman of Malwa repulsed the Gupta Empire in the 6th century. Madhya Pradesh has many monuments and sites of historical importance associated with various dynasties. Apart from the classical culture, the tribal population also has various varied cultural strains that are unchanged for several thousand years.
In the 3rd century B.C., Maharastra was a part of the Mauryan Empire. As the Mauryan Empire declined, Maharastra came under the rule of various dynasties like the Satavahanas, the Traikutakas, the Vatakas, the Chalukyas and the Yadavas. Significant cultural activities continued between 3rd and 9th century A.D., during which the remarkable frescos of the Ajanta caves were made.
Towards the close of the 13th century, Maharastra came under Muslim rule. In the first part of the 17th century the great Chatrapati Shivaji emerged who gave the Marathas a new sense of unity and purpose. Early in the 19th century, Maharastra came under the British domination.
An enterprising and affluent race inhabited Odisha and it carried on trade with Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Java, Cambodia and islands of the Pacific Sea. Asoka, the Great of the Mauryan Empire to take control of Kalinga, fought a bloody battle. The horrors of the war changed Asoka and he became a serious Buddhist.
Jainism and Buddhism flourished in Odisha with equal vigor. Hieun- Tsang, the famous Chinese traveler visited it in the 7th century. Bhubaneswar, Puri and Cuttack at different times served as the capitals of the Oriya Kings. The first Westerners to arrive in Odisha were the Portuguese, in 1514. The Dutch came in 1625. In the first decade of the 19th century, the British took possession of this state.
Chandragupta Maurya drove out the Greek Viceroy of the province. After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, Punjab was successively raided and occupied by the Graeco-Bactrians, Sakas, Kushans and the Huns. Mahmud of Ghazni was the first Muslim invader to enter Punjab in the 10th century. A number of other Muslim invasions followed until Babar established the Mughal rule.
Towards the later phase of the decadent Mughal power the two other invaders in whose hands the Punjab suffered were Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali. Punjab entered a new phase of history with Guru Nanak with whom began the Sikh faith (1469- 1539). Nine Gurus succeeded him. Under various historical circumstances, the Sikhs became a militant community.
The conflict between the Sikhs and the Mughals was a long story with amazing resistance showed by the Sikhs. Punjab was at its peak when King Ranjit singh ruled during 1780-1839. After his death the two wars with the rising British power gave a setback to their strength in Punjab. The British took over the Province in 1849. The whole of Punjab is strewn with monuments and places bearing the memory of the freedom struggles.
In the 12th century, the Rajput princes fought and checked the Muslim invasions for long. In 1526 Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire came. Sangram singh of Mewar defied him. Mewar valiantly resisted till the time of Jahangir. Trouble started because of the religious intolerance of Aurangazeb. Then, the Mughal power declined and Rajputana could not enjoy freedom due to the attacks from the Maratha powers. This made it easy for the British to step in as the protector of the princely states of Rajasthan, 20 in all and annexed them. The princes allowed the merger of their states into the Union of India on the nation's achievement of freedom from the British.
Later, though Chogyal was the chief, it was India who appointed the Prime Minister of the state and was responsible for its defence. In 1975, to fulfill the popular urge of the people of Sikkim, it was made a regular state, the 22nd of the Republic of India.
A third great dynasty of Tamilnadu was the Pallava dynasty of Kanchi that came to prominence in the 4th century A.D. Prosperous ports extended Tamilnadu's commerce to distant countries. The Kural by Thiruvalluvar, one of the greatest works of Indian literature written 2000 years ago, shows the growth and prosperity of Tamil in ancient times.
Excavations at Arikamedu on the outskirts of the city prove that there was a Roman settlement here and regular commerce was carried on between the Port of Pondicherry and the Roman cities. The French came here following the Portuguese and the Danes, and took root here. In 1693, the Dutch bought the area from the French ruler of Gingee. Four years later, following a treaty, the French took possession of the city, with Francois Martin for its administrator.
In the 18th century, in the wake of the wars between England and France, the English in India tried to dislodge the French from Pondicherry. The city changed hands several times. Finally, the French took over in 1816 and continued here till its merger with the rest of India in 1954.
In 1309, Alauddin Khilji conquered a part of the region. Muslim rulers then followed. In the 16th century, the Lodi kings made Agra their capital. Soon Babar arrived and several wars followed, and then the region became a part of the Mughal Empire. The British through the East India Company, took over the area in the 18th century. In 1857, the Sepoy Mutiny took place in a large scale in this region.
In the 15th century, Sri Chaitanya, the great Vaishnav prophet appeared. In the 16th century Bengal came under the Mughal rule. In 1757, the young Nawab of Bengal, Sirajuddaula, who was disgusted with the British rule, clashed with them at the Battle of Plassey. Under Clive's leadership, the Company won because of the betrayal of Sirajuddaula's commander- in- chief, Mr. Jaffar's betrayal of his master. Siraj was soon assassinated. With the company's support, Jaffar occupied the throne of Bengal. But he was soon deposed and the Company snatched the powers from the weak successors of Jaffar. At last, Warren Hastings obliged the Nawab to retire and became the administrator of Bengal and later became the Governor- General of British India.
The sons of Bengal played a prominent part in the resurrection of India. The English education in India, started in Bengal and with the suggestion of Raja Rammohan Roy, the first English College was also set up in Calcutta in 1817.
The Chinese traveler Marco Polo who passed through these islands in 1290 calls them the "Angamanian Islands". Friar Odoric another European traveler in 1322 refers to the people of these islands as "Cannibals" who ate each other. But Nicolo Conti who arrived at these islands in 1440, calls these islands as the islands of Gold.
The colonizing European powers began coverting these islands from the 18th century. In 1869, they came to the possession of the British from the Dutch. For the British, the islands were for a penal settlement.
The dreaded Prison was the Cellular Jail, now a national monument. Once sent there, the prisoners were likely to die than turn back due to the unhealthy conditions that prevailed there.