Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru presented to the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22, 1947,the National - Flag of India. It is a horizontal tricolourflag. The ratio of the width to the length of the Flag shall ordinarily be 2 : 3. The cloth for the manufacture of the flag can be handspun and handwoven khadhi, cotton, woolen or silk.
The flag shall be a tricolour panel made up of three rectangular panels or sub - panels of equal widths. The colours of the top panels shall be India - saffron ( kesari ), and that of the bottom panel shall be India - green, the middle panel shall be white bearing at its centre the design of Ashoka Chakra in navy blue colour. The Ashoka Chakra shall have 24 spokes equally spaced and shall preferably be screen printed or otherwise printed or stencilled or suitably embroidered with navy blue colour. In all the cases, the chakra shall be completely visible on both sides of the flag in the centre of the white panel.
NATIONAL EMBLEM- the Lion Capital
The National Emblem of India is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Lion Capital was erected in the 3rd Century B.C by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation to the four quarters of the Universe. The National Emblem is thus symbolic of India's commitment to world peace and goodwill. The four lions
(one hidden from view) - symbolizing power, courage and confidence,rest
on a circular abacus. The abacus is girded by four
smaller animals - guardians of the four directions: the lion in the north,
the elephant in the east, the horse in south and the bull in the west.
The abacus rests on a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead
of life and creative inspiration. The motto 'Satyameva Jayate' inscribed
below the emblem in Devanagari script means "Truth Alone Triumphs".
NATIONAL ANTHEM- Jana Gana Mana
Translation of the National Anthem
art the ruler of the minds of all people
dispenser of India's destiny
name rouses the hearts of the Punjab,
Gujarat and Maratha, Dravida, Odisha and Bengal
echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas
the music of the Yamuna and Ganges
is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea
pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise
saving of all people waits in thy hand,
dispenser of India's destiny,
Victory, Victory to Thee."
The national anthem
was composed by Rabindranath Tagore in
Hindi . He also composed many lovely songs and beautiful short stories which
are popular with the elites as well as the rough peasants. The songs were based
on the beauty of India's scenery, the beauty of women and the sufferings of
the masses. He was awarded th Nobel Peace Prize in 1913 for his literary works.
SONG- Vande Mataram
Composed by Bankim Chandra, the National
Song of India, appears in the Bengali novel Anand Math. The English translation
of this "Vande Mataram" rendered by Shree Aurobindo, is considered
to be the official and best. The first stanza of this song has been given the
status of our national song.
Malayaja Shitalam Shasyashyamalamm
Shobinim Suhasinim Sumadhura
Bhasinim Sujhadam varadam
I bow to
the Mother, Richly watered, richly fruited
Cool with the winds of the South, Dark
with the crops of the harvests,
Her nights rejoicing in the Glory
of the moonlight
Her hands clothed beautifully with
her trees in flowering bloom
Sweet of laughter, sweet of speech
The Mother, giver of boons,giver
India is my country. All Indians
are my brothers and sisters.
I Love my country. I am proud of its rich and varied culture. I shall
always strive to be worthy of it.
I shall love and respect my parents, teachers and elders.
To my country and my people I pledge my devotion
I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and strengthen
the freedom and integrity of the nation.
I further affirm that I shall never resort to violence and that all
differences and disputes relating to religion, language, region or other
political or economic grievances should be settled by peaceful and constitutional
In theri well being and prosperity alone lies my happiness.
The Lotus or water lily
is an aquatic plant of Nymphaea with broad floating leaves and bright
fragrant flowers that grow only in shallow waters. The leaves and flowers
float and have long stems that contain air spaces. The big attractive flowers
have many petals overlapping in a symmetrical pattern. The root functions
are carried out by rhizomes that fan out horizontally through the mud
below the water. Lotuses, prized for their serene beauty, are delightful
to behold as their blossoms open on the surface of a pond. In India the sacred lotus is
legendary and much folklore and religious mythology is woven around it.
Peacock has been given a proud position in India. It is taken
as the bird to represent the whole country. The male has gorgeous tail
feathers, which have a striking color combination. The tail spreads out
for over a meter. During rains or at times when it feels excited it spreads
its tail in the form of a fan and dances, which is a magnificent sight.
It produces a raucous, harsh and penetrating sound, which is termed ugly
when compared to its elegant poise.
Peacocks are found throughout
India up to a height of 5000 ft. They feed on grains, vegetables, snakes,
and insects. They normally roost on big trees. They are known to move
only in groups. Poaching of these birds is strictly prohibited throughout
Tigers are very
graceful and majestic in appearance. The Indian tiger has a golden yellow
color with black strips and a shorthaired coat. Some tigers in India are
white in color as found in the famous Gir forests of Gujarat. The tigers
in the Sunderbans and the Himalayan regions are bigger than those found
in Madhya Pradesh and in South India. Tigers normally live in evergreen
forests. In the Sunderbans they lead an amphibious life. The lifespan of
a tiger is around 20 years. They hunt almost all wild animals even the big
NATIONAL TREE- Banyan
Indian national tree is the
fig tree, Ficus bengalensis, whose branches root themselves like new trees
over a large area. The roots give rise to more
trunks and branches. Because of this characteristic and its longevity,
this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths
and legends of India. Even today, the banyan tree
is the focal point of village life and the village council in most areas
meets under the shade of this tree.
A fleshy fruit, eaten ripe
or used green for pickles etc., of the tree Mangifera indica, the mango
is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruits of the tropical
world, especially in India and hence it is its national fruit.
Its juicy pulp is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there
are over100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes, have been cultivated
in India from time immemorial. The poet Kalidasa sang its praises. Alexander
savoured its taste, as did the Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang. Akbar planted
100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, known as Lakhi Bagh.
NATIONAL GAME- Hockey
Hockey is the National Game
of India. Unmatched excellence and incomparable virtuosity brought India
a string of Olympic gold medals. The Golden Era of hockey in
India was the period from 1928 - 1956 when India won 6 consecutive gold
medals in the Olympics. During the Golden Era, India played 24 Olympic
matches, won all 24, scored 178 goals (at an average of 7.43 goals per
match) and conceded only 7 goals. The two other gold medals for India
came in the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and the 1980 Moscow Olympics.